1954 Practical Bar Management by Eddie Clarke

EUVS Collection Harry Craddock's successor at the Savoy's American Bar and known as the London King of Cocktail in the 50's


/ e successful modern Bar some- .les, but not necessarily, qualified as Cocktail Bar or American Bar—is the N[^duct of careful planning and sltrewd business management, and, at the same time, the expression of the ^personality of the Bartender. Wide |d varied is the range of knowledge d accomplishments required of the pn in charge if the Bar is to become social rendezvous. In Practical Bar 'ana^ement, the author, one of the it-known personalities in the trade Mfounder of "Eddie's" Club and leviously for seven years the man "und the bar at the celebrated •any Club—has drawn on an un- llly wide experience as bartender, lager and international expert to >duce this comprehensive book, ating of all aspects of bar manage ment and of the bartender's calling. Hisown practical knowledge is.-supple- mented by two valuable chapters, the nne contributed by an expert in bar accountancy and control, and the otiher by a barrister-at-law who has ^Mcialised in licensing law. Not only nn .m;.. r,l< but the public also will find mformative, since the author's racy"~" ^fyle is a true expression of his ^'"fiaging personality and wit. '^ddie Clarke's high standing in his profession is indicated by the fact he is a past President of the that' FT . i " ^tuted Kingdom Bartenders' Guild, ^or of two books of cocktail he includes in these pages a ^ book as readable as WWhelpfully ^

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jrehensive selection from his |repertory of mixed drinks. He 'for six years as a gunner in War II,leaving the army with pnk of Captain, R.A.

tdistinctive Recipes ^antities for Parties


Portrait frontispiece

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Shaking with Eddie Shake Again with Eddie


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Eddie Clarke





EDDIE CLARKE Former President of the United Kingdom Bartenders' Guild

A Guide to the Organization, Staffing, Management and Control of Cocktail and other Bars




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Introduction page vii

ONE Drinking in General page I

TWO Planning the Bar page 6

THREE The Bar page 19

FOUR The Bartenders page 31

FIVE The Art of Service page 46

SIX Equipment page: 55

SEVEN Glassware page 64



EIGHT The Art of Mixing page 71

NINE The Art of Wining page 89

TEN The Art of Dealing with Hangovers page 94

ELEVEN Recipes for Mixed Drinks page 97

TWELVE Useful Things to Know page III

THIRTEEN The HeART of a Party page 119

FOURTEEN Bar Accountancy and Control BY NORMAN CHAMBERLIN page 124

FIFTEEN Licensing Law and the Bar BY W. ERIC JACKSON, LL.B., BARRISTER-AT-LAW page 148

Index page 155



Ifall be true thatIdo think. There are jive reasons why men drink.

Good wine, afriend, or being dry. Or lest we should be by-and-by. Or any other reason why. Almostevery year since Cocktails and American Bars were first introduced into this country there have appeared in ever-increasing numbers books and pamphlets on"how to mix drinks but very little has been written about the most important subject of all—Bartending or Bar Management on the whole— or to clarify these titles more fully, information which gives one details about a bar, what one needs for it and what the surround ings should be, also how to serve those wonderful concoctions, commonly known as "Cocktails to the unsuspecting and mostly all-trusting public. It is therefore not really surprising that sometimes one is apt to hear comments of a rather detrimental nature in regard to the service etc., of some bars specializing in cocktails and other mbced drinks. This must be considered a little unfair, because it has been impossible for the staffs of the many thousand Cocktail Bars now established throughout our Isles to receive first-hand practical training from the experts of their calling. One must remember that it was not so long ago that only a few of our big cities boasted of this fashionable type of drinking rendezvous, and that only there could the experienced Bar Manager and Bartender be found. Hence it would have been impossible for them to have given the proper training to the staffs of the many "Bars"of to-day. Furthermore, it is only during these latter years that the Directors and Managements of our catering establishments have become"Bar-Conscious". In the not-too-distant past, it was only an afterthought that led to the installation of a bar, and then sometimes in some odd corner which was no use for anything vii


else ; whilst thejob ofrunning it was given to some"blue-eyed" boy or girl, from another department of the"House whose main qualifications were nothing more than a pleasant smile. It is, then,the purpose ofthis book to help and guide those who have been unfortunate in their initial training, and others,towards a higher standard of proficiency in their respective Cocktail Bars. Whilst accepting this, in passing let us pay tribute to the United Kingdom Bartenders' Guild, who, as a body, have accomplished so much in recent years towards raising the standard of bartending to its present-day efficiency and prestige.


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The Man behind the Bar

He deserves a hero's medal For the many lives he's saved, And upon the roll of honour His name should be engraved. He deserves a lot of credit For the way he stands the strain For the bunk he has to swallow Would drive most of us insane. He must pay the highest licence, He must pay the highest rent. He must settle with the agents Should he never take a cent. And when it comes to paying bills He's Johnny on the spot. He'll pay for what he sells you Whether you pay him or not. And when you walk into his place He will greet you with a smile. Be you workman dressed in overalls Or banker dressed in style. Be you Irish, English, Dutch or French He doesn't give a"ruddy"dot. He'll treat you like a gentleman Until you prove you're not. It matters not what aches and pains. Or the hardships he endures. He speaks not of his troubles. Though you always tell him yours. And if the weather's hot or cold Or turns from rain to snow. It's up to you to tell him so— He's not supposed to know. But sure enough,the day will come, To lay aside his Cocktail Shaker, Hang up his apron and his coat. And go forth to meet his Maker. When St. Peter sees him coming. He'll leave the gates ajar. For he knows he had his hell on earth Had"The Man behind the Bar".


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Drinking in General

The tide rises, the tidefalls. The tivilight darkens, the curfew calls; The little waves, with their soft zohite hands

Efface thefootprints in the sands. And the tide rises, the tidefalls.

w ''E BRITISH are often misjudged, but never more so than ,, by those who believe that the best mixers of drink are either American, Cuban, West Indian, French, or any other nationality but British. This in itself is an obvious "sticky wicket" for the ego of the Bar Manager, but he must not only live up to the high reputation of this island breed by grinning and bearing such adverse opinions: he must fight and in the end emerge triumphant. Not physically, of course, but with such weapons as a high degree of tact, together with service, comfort and facilities more than comparable with those obtainable abroad. To justify such resolutions, is it not a well-known fact that the tourist's reaction when not finding all this (including his or her favourite drink)will beto criticise, either silently or aloud,not only the guilty establishment, but the country as a whole ? Whilst remembering our foreign visitors, let us not forget our own countrymen, who in these days of high prices are surely ro service of proportionately high standard, for although we are a long-suffering race and are reluctant to show outwardly our disapproval, we do possess wills of our own and, therefore, choose our drinking haunts accordingly. To this end, then, must the Bar Manager dedicate his endeavours. He must be competent, with as much practical experience as possible, possessing business acumen and a pleasing personality together with a real live interest in the welfare of his clientele and of the establishment which he represents. He must liken himself to the captain of a ship, upon whose initiative and direction it depends whether his conunand heads for the rocks, or towards the calm waters of prosperity.


What,then, must he know in order to become the ideal answer to all these demands ? Suppose we start at the very beginning, and as"drink"will be the major theme running throughoutthese pages, let us dwell for a while on this interesting subject. If one were to trace back the history of alcohol as a beverage, the thousands of years involved would be no greater than the number of reasons for drinking it, or the number of ways. This is neither the time nor the place to probe the mysteries regarding the discovery of fermentation or distillation. So many books have already been written about this, and so many theories propounded. The greatest of all books, the Bible, has continual references to wine, not the least of these being at the wedding feast at Cana of Galilee. The New Testament, however, does not contain by any means the earliest mention of"drink"; it is a well-known fact that the Ancient Egyptians buried wine with their dead Pharaohs. The Chinese had a similar custom, as had other races of a bygone era. Different countries contribute their own native potions to the world's varieties of to-day, although some are very little known in Britain. For example,the Japanese have for centuries made rice wines and Saki. The Hawaiians' own native brew, called Okelehao, was drunk on those tropical islands long before the first European sail was sighted over their distant horizon. Naturally, then,throughoutthe ages,voyagers and discoverers like Columbus, Drake, Raleigh and other great men, carried in their ships the various local brews that they encountered back to their homes or to other strange lands. Thus the inhabitants had the opportunity of sampling new-tasting liquors, which they either adopted or discarded as their palates dictated. In this country some of these potions have withstood the test of time, and have now become traditional and accepted into our everyday social life—for example, those very familiar wines from near at home. Vermouth from sunny Italy, Port of Oporto, and Madeira, once a great favourite, from the isle from which it takes its name. Drinking as a method of quenching one's thirst is, of course, fundamental, and it is significant to note that in countries where the supply of water was not always sufficient or pure enough for this purpose, man was quicker to find a substitute than he was to find means to augment or to purify. Whilst some humans need,


or wish,for little more than water to keep their bodies moist, the majority of us, no matter what our station in life may be, desire something a little stronger to fortify us through our allotted term on earth. A discourse on the reasons for drinking could without doubt fill the pages of several volumes, nevertheless, in any such discussion the word companionship must inevitably arise. As a common factor in"getting together", alcohol most surely plays a part. Drink is the key which will unlock the door and cause men to meet,then having met,discuss,console or congratulate. So are the weary refreshed, the uneducated taught, the normally shy and retiring allowed to enjoy the gift of friendship. Thus can men share their triumphs and their failures, forget the injustices and doubts of the past, and encourage the friendships and faith of the future. Drinking requires not only its time but also its place, and it is with places that we are concerned in this book. As a fine jewel demands its setting, so does alcohol need its appropriate back ground, its atmosphere of companionship, without which it is in danger of becoming coarse and vulgar, for the solitary drinker in his garret is a very sorry sight. We must remember, too, that alcohol has manyforms and that each has its place. A good brandy does not lose its intrinsic value at any time, but it is never better than when enjoyed from a balloon glass at leisure after an excellent meal: a pint of beer drunk from a mess-tin by the wayside can be nectar, but in normal circumstances this could never compete with a foaming tankard quaffed in good company at the"local What,then, is the particular setting needed for the more exotic type of drinking ? It is the Cocktail Bar,that most attractive and profitable asset to any catering establishment, offering infinite scope and variety. It can be the place where the stop-at-home may sample the drinks and mixtures ofa hundred countries, where the traveller may refresh his memory, and where the foreigner may get a glimpse of home. In this department the inventive genius of experts can be given full rein, and the beauty of spirits, liqueurs and wines, blended together in countless ways, may be presented in what is known to the modern public as the "Cocktail". Before proceeding farther we may ask whence did this particular


type of drink derive its name. This is one of those questions which is made so difficult by the great number of potentially correct answers; however,since everyone is entitled to his views, here are mine. I give you two possible origins. My first is from Mexico: a king, wise in the ways of wine and men,showed this knowledge when negotiating with a visiting American general,and added to the smoothness ofthe discussions by getting his beautiful daughter, Coctel, to serve a potent mixture of local brews to his guest. On returning to his native land, the general remembered both the girl and the drink, so when he introduced the mixture to his compatriots he aptly named it"Coctel"after the lady in question. My second story is from the land of the silver dollar about the year 1780, where there lived a lady who owned a tavern. Her success as a tavern keeper was partly due to her skill in mixing liquors of those times into a secret concoction of her own. Now this good lady had been very unsuccessful in another direction— in attracting the attentions of a young local farmer, famed near and far for his breeding of fighting cocks. Revenge, therefore, became a necessity to the Lady of the Tavern, and so it came to pass that one dark night all the prize birds mysteriously dis appeared. A few evenings later the hostess sent invitations to many of her friends, including the young farmer,to be her guests at dinner. Needless to mention, a special item on the menu was roast chicken, and the hero unknowingly partook of his own cockerels. After the meal, much to the amusement of the party, bottles of the blended mixture, decorated with the tail feathers of the cocks, were brought in, and as the night wore on, hilarious cries for"another cocktail"were constantly echoing throughout the room. So please take your choice of these stories—either one sounds good. Bringing our history more up to date, we are told that the first "Cocktail Bar"was opened in London just before the turn of the century, both the bar and the bartender being imported from America. Be that as it may, we find that from about that date onwards, with ever-increasing popularity, the vogue of the cocktail developed, and with the coming of the American troops towards the end of the 1914-1918 war, most of the leading hotels


which had not already done so, hastily established Cocktail Bars of varying types. Thus did the American or Cocktail Bar become a permanent institution in these Isles, and then followed years ofcompetition— but as we progressed, so did our American friends go in reverse. Whilst her sons had been away fighting in Europe, in their homeland Prohibition was made law. Public drinking was thus driven underground, and the"speak easies", with their magnificent bars, flourished. In hotels, entertaining had to take place behind locked doors, and mixed drinks became popular which did not need the aid of a cocktail shaker,for example,the"Old-Fashioned ". In this case the host simply rang the service pantry for the required number of"set ups", each one being prepared as follows: a cube of sugar was placed in a glass, slightly moistened with Angostura Bitters, then the sugar and the bitters were crushed into a paste. Next, two or three pieces of ice and a slice of orange were added. So far all was legal. The"set-up"was delivered to the room and there the responsibility of the establishment ended. From hip pocket or other places of safety bottles of Rye or Bourbon whisky were produced and this was added to the glass according to capacity and taste. (In Britain this drink is still very popular with American visitors. Use the equivalent of a double"six out"measure of Rye or Bourbon, and add a little squeeze of lemon peel.) Returning to our earlier statement with regard to the adverse opinions upon British bartenders, we can see how wrong our critics are. Have we not had over fifty years of uninterrupted experience in our work ? And for proof it is interesting to note the number of times that the international Cocktail Competition trophies have been won by men within these shores. In summing up then, having touched briefly on drinking in general,the Cocktail and the Cocktail Bar,one fact is revealed,the management of the latter calls for an accomplished tradesman. For although the origin ofthe cocktail is a little obscure,ofthis we are sure, a skilled craft has evolved, the importance of which no hotelier or catering establishment can afford to overlook.


Planning the Bar

We come into this world all naked and bare. Wego through this worldfull ofsorrow and care. We go out o/this world, we know not where. But if weWe goodfellows here, we'll be thoroughbreds there.

CERTAINLY it is not a correct statement to make that a man only drinks when he is thirsty, if it were, one would marvel at the vast numbers of parched human beings. Obviously,then, the universal popularity of bars is not solely due to the refresh ments served in them. A bar provides many other things besides drink. It is a meeting place, a centre of good fellowship, a comfortable spot where one can relax and let the world go by. In fact, it is the basis ofan important social habitin our communal life, whether it be a Cocktail Bar in a first-class hotel or restaurant, our own favourite club, or the bar parlour at the"local". The wise caterer will do well to remember these human desires when considering the creation of a new drinking oasis for the benefit of mankind. He must concentrate on providing pleasant surroundings and endeavour to give his patrons all the amenities at his command,together with service beyond reproach. For the momentlet us set aside the customer's point ofview and dwell on the assets to be derived from a well-run Cocktail Bar. 1. It adds considerably to the attractiveness of the hotel or restaurant. 2. It is a very profitable department of any establishment. 3. It is beneficial to the restaurant—that is to say, if the bar is a popular rendezvous,friends who have met and enjoyed its hospitality are reluctant to leave, and will therefore stay and order their meal at leisure. It is surprising the amount of casual custom obtained in this manner.


What should the Proprietor's course of action be in order to



reap these benefits ? The answer is that he should install the bar in the most accessible position within the best possible surround ings. It should never be tucked around some odd corner, it must be made one of the showpieces of the establishment. This, of course, applies mainly to a hotel, restaurant or club, but there is the other type of Cocktail Bar, which is in a position of its own and entirely self-contained and which will present other problems. These will be discussed a little later, but there is one obvious requirement which is common to all categories of bars. It is a regrettable fact, but humanity's great failing would seem to be idleness and many people adopt the line of least resistance where pleasure is concerned, in the light of this, one acceptable fact emerges, the bar must be easily found. The best equipped Cocktail Bar in the world will lose much of its value if strangers cannot find it, or if it does not strike the eye of the man in search of a drink. Position, therefore, takes priority, and whilst on this subject, let us consider some desirable factors which by careful planning can easily be achieved. With reference to the Hotel Bar,there are a series ofsuggestions to offer in regard to positioning. The first being—and this really applies to all types of Cocktail Bars—it is advisable to install it on ground level, excluding all stairs, since many people view the latter in relation to alcohol with a certain amount of disapproval— sometimes fears of negotiability dampen their ego—whilst there are others who unfortunately, for medical reasons, must eliminate stairs completely from their everyday life. There is another point to remember, we are all creatures of whims and fancies, and one could name countless fads of various kinds; be that as it may, we are only concerned just now in contending with two opposite types of customers. On one hand there is the person who dislikes entering direct from the street into the bar, and on the other, the one who feels rather self- conscious about making a tour of the hotel before finally reaching the cocktail paradise. The obvious answer to this problem is to have two entrances, one making the bar easily accessible from the outside, and the other for the advantage of the hotel guests within the establishment. One point needs considering about the entrance from the street: try to keep it as far away as possible


from the main entrance of the hotel, to avoid any fear of clashing with the tone of the establishment. The ingenious restaurateur installs his Cocktail Bar in such a position that his clients must pass through on their way to the dining-room, thereby insuring that they are reminded that an aperitif adds to the enjoyment of the meal. There are some cases where mistakes have been made when siting the bar to achieve that object: be certain thatthe entrance is not directly opposite the main thoroughfare into the restaurant; people invariably gather at the nearest end of the bar, thereby causing a congested bottle neck similar to the turnstiles at a soccer match. The self-contained Cocktail Bar must have prominence of position. Where more complex catering establishments have numerous amenities to attract their customers, the detached bar must derive its success from the reputation it attains as a rendez vous for good drinks with appetizing snacks. It must be accessible from the main points of the district, with a good parking space for cars in close proximity. Entrance to the Bar The entrance should be a feature of importance giving the impression of smartness and welcome to the patron ; so many bars are condemned at the beginning of their careers through having narrow and dingy doorways. An attractive canopy, for example, or window boxes planted with the flowers in season, will do much to improve the appearance of such establishments. With every type of Cocktail Bar one vital point must be considered, its location should be clearly indicated by an adequate number of signs, illuminated if necessary, and be so positioned that they will lead the customer to the entrance rather than just show him where it is. This will also provide assurance that the local inhabitants are no more aware of the existence of the Bar than the stranger who is passing by. The type of entrance door is a matter for consideration. Some prefer the revolving ones, mainly as a method for excluding draughts, but these are sometimes difficult for elderly or infirm persons to manipulate, although this can, of course, be overcome by having an attendant for such service. Others give preference to the heavy glass swing door, which was probably traditionally 8


the correct one for entering taverns of long ago. There is a point in favour, they do give easy access, and easier departure is some times a necessity. Whilst it may not be possible to implement these suggestions it must be remembered that they are the ideal and not the imperative. It would be wrong to suppose that a bar lacking any of the.virtues of positioning mentioned would automatically be a failure. Having then decided on the location of the bar, either in a room of its own, or some other position equally favourable— one is then confronted with a series ofriddles. Firstly, there is the question of ventilation,then of heating,succeeded by the blending together of decor, lighting, furnishings and the structure of the bar itself. The ultimate answer to all these problems must be one of perfect harmony, every factor toning in the most pleasing and attractive fashion, thereby endeavouring to create that mysterious and all-important thing, commonly known as "Atmosphere ". Whence a bar derives this has always been a debatable subject. Does it come from the decor and furnishings? Or from the shape and size of the room ? Maybe it arises from the bartender's personality, or could it be brought in by the people who patronize the establishment ? Wherever it comesfrom there is no mistaking this unseen occupant called Atmosphere, one feels it directly on stepping through the door, it is either there engulfing us with friendliness—or very sadly absent, leaving in its void a feeling of estrangement and the impression that one is trespassing. Present-day designers of Cocktail Bars have done some wonder ful and attractive work throughout these Isles; they have accomplished every type of design,from Tudor or Old Spanish, to the ultra-modern,smart,sophisticated bar—their work is indeed a credit to their skill and ingenuity. Where sometimes Catering Managements have erred is in not giving these artists a free hand in the decor of the room itself. There are cases of beautiful- looking bars being entirely out of keeping and clashing horridly with the existing surroundings. If the room is of the old world with half-timbered walls and lattice windows, the bar, although modern in every detail, should blend gracefully \yith the centuries- old atmosphere. Supposing,though,in a more modern establish ment, the wish is for something unique, probably a"Tyrolean


Bar then the room should have everything in harmony,a d6cor of red and green, furnishings in keeping, with tall back-to-back settees and window boards complete with flower boxes. Careful thought must therefore be given to every detail, bearing foremostin mind thatthe decor chosen will not date or deteriorate and that after a time it will not drive the customers to distraction. It must never be allowed to become dull or shabby. A Cocktail Bar must always be intriguing, up to date, fresh and clean. Ventilation Referring now to the planning of a room, and the different factors in their respective order,the matter of ventilation demands a high priority. The bar is always the most crowded area of any establishment, and although natural ventilation may be provided by window openings,it is not always adequate to deal with tobacco fumes and the concentration of used air produced from the many people gathered together in its limited space, therefore it is always advisable to install some mechanical means to deal satis factorily with this problem. A constant supply offresh air to preserve the cleanliness of the atmosphere is an absolute necessity to business; the public of to-day are much more fresh-air conscious than they were in the past. Nobody cares to stay long in a confined space, breathing in heavily-laden, smoky, bad air—^it is depressing and eventually becomes unbearable. Needless to say the ideal apparatus for a bar is an air-condition ing plant. It diflfers from natural ventilation inasmuch as it deals mainly with the treatment of the air and not so much with its movement. With air-conditioning the air is cleaned and the temperature is controlled at a suitable level, so that inside the room it remains the same at all times no matter what external conditions may be like. During the summer the air in the bar will be clean and cool, in the winter clean and warm. Heating Speaking of winter reminds us that the colder days of this season greatly outnumber those of summer,impressing on us the urgent need of artificial heating. Apartfrom the personality ofthe bartender, the Cocktail Bar itself should always give a"warm



welcome"to its clientele, but it is useless to provide for this ifthe cold air in its many forms is allowed a free passport in from the exterior. Precautions must be taken to exclude draughty avenues, thereby at the same time insuring that the heat within is retained. Central heating is the ideal method of distributing warmth evenly throughout the room, but where radiators are installed, have them encased in attractively designed grilles in keeping with the decoration of the surrounds. Some Hints on D^cor A discourse on the decor could be a lengthy subject,and unless one is familiar with the position in which the bar is to be situated it is absolutely impossible to advise. However, there are a few common factors which experience has taught, and which are passed on for interest. Endeavour to design the Cocktail Bar to the taste of the antici pated clientele, meaning as a glaring example,it would be madness to install a smart West End of London type of bar up in the mountains of Scotland where the guests are either fishermen or climbers, who would prefer simplicity and comfort to ornamenta tion and smartness. The room which is to house the bar is nearly always in existence before it was ever decided to convert it to its new employment. Probably the ceiling may appear too low, or too high, in which case it is always well to remember that height can be given a disguise, and either increased or reduced by a skilled designer experienced in the contrast of colours. Walls must not lack interest; where there are vast expanses they can be broken by artistically arranged vases offlowers or some other pleasant attraction. Careful consideration must be given to the choice of colouring for walls, should the hue be too exotic there is the danger that it will distract from the furnishings. Pastel shades and tints are particularly suitable ; light coloured walls will give a fresh and airy look to a room,they will also tend to make the smaller place seem much larger, and dimly lit rooms much brighter. Colour is always an item of importance: few people realize that it has a psychological effect on most humans— with many it is capable to some extent of influencing moods and changes in their behaviour. One views with alarm the red rag when approaching the proverbial bull, beware then of the colour



red,for it is also stimulating and exciting to all species of mankind. Orange may likewise be classed in the same category although it is not quite so dangerous as red. Diametrically opposite, the light tone of green will give a more desired effect, one of relaxation and repose, whilst a pale shade of blue renders an added freshness. Deeper tints of these two colours are said to help people with their powers of concentration, although this is hardly the purpose, or wish, of the patrons of a Cocktail Bar. Referring back to the lighter tones of green and blue, they have additional qualities to those previously mentioned: in rooms which receive plenty of sunshine these colours, or a greenish- yellow, will give an impression of coolness. But probably the reverse effect is required,and the shade of decor is needed to bring an added warmth to the room. If this be so, then colours such as cream, apricot or pink will give the desired effect. With a view to increasing the apparent size of a room, the use of lighter tones is suggested, but for large areas of background, hues of a darker variety will give the impression of reduction. When choosing colours it is advisable also to conjure up in one's mind the space which will be occupied with fixtures and fittings at a later date. A final summary, then, in the matter of decor. Walls, paint and floorsshould tone with each other, but it is more becoming to give contrast than a bad match. Even so the contrast must not be too violent, or it is liable to produce a restless effect on the average individual. Such would be the case with too much use of brilliant hues against dark and subdued shades. One last point in passing, a small one probably, but worthy of note,is in regard to acoustics. Hard gloss walls tend to echo with harsher notes than rough textured walls. Glance around your local cinema during the next visit, it will confirm this interesting theory. Treatment of Windows Any Cocktail Bar possessing windows is indeed fortunate, especially if they offer a pleasant panorama to the patron. Unfortunately this is seldom obtainable in our cities. Windows not only serve to provide extra ventilation, they also give added attraction to the room, and many establishments have built



dummy windows just to achieve this purpose. Careful selection of curtains, blending in with the surrounding area, can make the window a feature of importance. A vital thing which is so often overlooked when choosing colours—they appear to change considerably during the hours of business. As an example,with dark coloured curtaining, when they are pulled back from the window with the sunlight streaming through during the day, the impression will be that they are of a much darker shade. At night when curtains are drawn and illuminated from within the room, they will seem of a distinctly lighter hue. A final note on curtaining: use warm colours for the colder rooms, and cool tones in the warmer ones. Lighting the Bar This can probably be classed as one of the major problems confronting the designer of a Cocktail Bar—it has evoked many a perplexed furrowed brow during the quest for the ideal lighting. So many details require consideration that the procedure adopted issometimesa course ofelimination ofvarious alternatives untilthe final decision is made. Actually the lighting bears a striking resemblance to the final touch of the master's brush, completing the picture ofthe room with perfect artistry', butshould a novice's hand make a careless stroke the whole masterpiece could be ruined. This, then, must be the theme of a discourse on lighting, for there are many complications which could be detrimental to the future success of the bar. Let us, therefore, note those points which demand priority. The decor texture of the walls and ceiling can have a surprising effect on the illumination of a room. This statement requires a little explanation. With the rough, flat type of finished surface, the texture resembles countless hills and dales which produce a multitude of small shadows, thereby tending to reduce the glare and give a more even distribution of light. In contrast, a highly glossed finish is similar in a small degree to a mirror, and it will reflect the lighting back in the direction from which it comes. Sometimes little thought is given to the effect of artificial lighting on colour—often it is really disastrous. The ordinary electric bulb normally gives a pale orange glow, which will almost give the touch of an artist's brush to the tints in the decoration ;



the pale blue colours will take on a bluish-green shade, and walls of cream will have a tinge of grey. Colours which are chosen and painting which is accomplished within the realms of daylight are especially troublesome in this respect. The only remedies are, of course, to change the bulbs or fit shades to provide the correct effect. Whilst the decor is demanding personal attention in regard to lighting, one must not forget the results it may have on an even more delicate subject: we have in our midst the"Ladies"who are by nature creatures of light, and will, therefore, be much more critical towards it than the average male. Strictly off record, it is the ambition of the"fairer sex"to look their best at all times, give them rose-tinted soft shades of lighting and they will purr like kittens, because it is one of the kindest aids to their feminine charms—but illuminate them in harshness and even the glimpse of a poor little straying mouse would not drive them out with more speed. Furthermore they would not cross the threshold again, until they were assured that the folly had been remedied— for folly it would be, as there are no finer ambassadors of a Cocktail Bar than the Ladies themselves. Probably the most popular type of present-day lighting, mainly because it gives illumination in the desired position, is the con cealed"Fluorescent Lighting It is particularly ideal for the larger rooms, and sometimes plays an important part in the decoration scheme. Floor Coverings This choice will depend entirely on the scheme of the room, and the design of the Cocktail Bar which is to be installed. There are floor coverings for all tastes and some very novel ideas. Whatever the choice of floor covering may be, certain require ments are needed, the first consideration being, of course, to blend it in with the other surroundings, hoping that it will help to capture that much needed atmosphere. Secondly, serious thought must be given to the fact that it has a very severe job to do: it must be pleasant to walk on, and be able to withstand the constant heavy daily traffic and cleaning without showing signs of deterioration, whilst at the same time retaining its freshness and appeal.



With floor coverings, contrast is essential. Should the walls be ofa patterned design,then the floor must be as plain as possible, too many patterns in one room are a restless distraction to the human eye. Reflecting on this, it is advisable to have fairly plain walls, with patterned or splashed floor coverings. The latter are more practical for bar use, as it is less noticeable should the covering become stained,or burnt with carelessly dropped cigarette ends. Carpets are, of course, very agreeable for walking on, they are soft and give a feeling of warmth in the winter. It is well to remember that it is not always necessary to buy expensive carpets for a Cocktail Bar, the cheaper variety will do providing a good thick underfelt is backing it up, and the felt can always remain the base for a new carpet. Probably, though, carpets are not desired, they may not fit in with the design of the room ; as an example, in keeping with"Ye Olde English Bar", one can see rubber decorative tiles laid to give a paving stone effect. Other Cocktail Bars give preference to floor coverings of Cork Parquet, or Thermo Plastic or Asphalt Tiles, they are all excellent for the task and can be obtained and fashioned in numerous attractive patterns. Furnishings Whether it be chairs or settees—plain or patterned tapestry or leathercloth fabric—it is again a matter of toning with the d^cor and floor coverings. Whatever the choice, be sure it is of good design and fadeless colours. Built-in settees all along the walls are very popular with a view to utilizing all the available space, although this does not often work out in actual practice. People are not always too happy about sitting close beside a stranger, also there are invariably the types who seem to occupy as much room as possible on this method of seating. Special attention must be paid to making the seating as comfort able as possible, it adds much to the enjoyment of drinking, there is nothing worse than sitting on a hard, straight-backed chair for such a pleasant pastirhe. The favourite type of chair for Cocktail Bars is the low-backed tub-shaped one, with attractive proportions and fully sprung seat; it gives a feeling ofcontentment



to the patron, and is convenient for the service of the bar staff, because it allows easy access during the stress of business. Never overcrowd the room with tables and chairs. Too much furniture is worse than not having enough; patrons would much rather stand than take part in a hurdle race to arrive at the bar, therefore be especially sure that the chairs and tables are well spaced, so that one can walk with ease between them. Remarking on tables brings up a few points about them. They should not be too low, the most favourable height is for the surface top to be about six inches above the chair seats, this will enable the customer to reach for a drink with ease,and will prevent slopping. Tables must be solid on their legs so that there is no fear of a careless knock crashing them over, but they must not be large, ungainly structures—small, neat and secure should be the target to aim for. Glass tops for the tables in Cocktail Bars belong to the past, the vogue to-day is to have them of the same coloured fabric as the bar-counter top, it is more serviceable and reduces breakages. Glasses are always a brittle subject, but never more fragile than when clashing against a more solid version of their own"kith-and-kin Choosing the Bar Stools Bar stools must be solid and well balanced, they are always precarious at the best of times; be sure that they are made with foot-rests, nothing can be more uncomfortable or tiring than to sit perched on a high stool with dangling legs. Even if there is a foot-rail running along the bottom of the bar counter, it is invariably much lower than most people's feet when seated correctly on a bar stool. Added comfort is procured for the patron on the stool by installing the make which is fitted with a low backrest. It is well worth while, because it impresses the customer at once that the Management has the welfare of the clientele very much at heart. A final note on coverings for the stool seats; they can either be of the same fabric as the other upholstery, or something in direct contrast. To complete the room before going into the details of the structure of the bar itself, there appears to be a most important



item missing—something which one generally looks for on arrival and finally before departure—the reference is to the clock. An attractive timepiece will add to the tone of the bar, and it should be placed in a very prominent position, easily read from the most distant point of the room,thereby informing patrons of their"zero"hour. Toilet Facilities There are also two other features which, although not actually contained in the room which houses the bar, should be very near to it, and must be given careful consideration, because they are both necessities which have a great bearing on the popularity of any Cocktail Bar—the Ladies' Powder Room and the Gentle men's Toilets. Never make the mistake of having a direct entry into either of these reservations from within the precincts of the Cocktail Bar, it tends to cause embarrassment to both sexes. But at the same time, without being unduly conspicuous, they should be situated where they can be readily located by everyone. Probably the best position for the gentlemen's toilet is the basement, providing it is not too far away, but in any case try and arrange it so that it is in an entirely different direction to that in which the ladies retire. The floor of the "Gentlemen's" should be tiled for the accent on cleanliness, and the fittings should include the usual stalls, etc., not forgetting at least one wash-hand basin (with a supply of soap, nailbrush and towel). There must also be ample room for hats and coats, to allow patrons to"park"same, without having to take them into the bar, thereby giving the inner sanctuary the appearance of a second-hand clothes shop. Ensure also that there is a most effective method of ventilation, and purifying and disinfection of the air. Too little attention is often given to the Ladies'Powder Room, especially as it is one of the most important amenities in any establishment. This room should be most tastefully decorated, and perfectly fitted out. There should be an attendant on duty at all times, and she must be well supplied with all the cosmetics and etceteras which a guest may be in need of. The situation most favoured for the powder room is either in the main entrance hall or close by.



Additional Services Although there may be a telephone exchange on the premises, with the usual extension lines into the Cocktail Bar, it is advisable to install telephone booths, with multi-coin boxes(as in the public 'phone boxes) for it enables patrons to have a little privacy in getting their own calls, and to pay for them at the same time. It is an excellent idea to install a sound system, which can be used for paging facilities, or as an asset to business on special occasions for the relaying of radio programmes, such as big sporting events or national speeches which are of interest to the clientele—it will stop them from running home,to listen at their own sets.



The Bar

Here's to the four cardinal sitis, Lyitig, Stealing, Szvearing, Drinking. When you lie, liefor a pretty woinan. When you steal, steal azuayfrom temptation. When you szvear, szvear by your country. When you drink, drink zuith me.

PASSINGthrough the doorway which signifies one is entering the sanctuary of the Cocktail Bar, there is a pause, whilst the eye seeks and photographs its first impression of the room's feature attraction—the Bar. For a moment, all the other details of the room are ignored, they merely form part of the background setting, which have been blended together with the intention of displaying the masterpiece to its best advantage. Later, probably leisurely sipping a drink, the newcomer will allow his eye to rove idly over the decor and furnishings, and will silently appraise the perfect harmony in which the design of the bar tones in with its sur roundings. Thus,then,is our patron enamoured,but let us move onwards and seek out some of the bar fittings, etc., which will help to provide the bartender with a workable attraction, whilst the customer is enjoying the visual one. Building the Modern Bar Many are the types of material for the construction of the present-day Cocktail Bar, and,to name a few of the most popular worthy of consideration, they include plastics, colourdized aluminium, veneered pljrwood, moulded matchboard, and sectioned glass. The choice of these and others, is, of course, a matter which rests entirely with the designer. Supposing, then, we leave the choice of the constructive material of the bar to the discretion of another, whilst we con centrate on certain other suggestions which can be offered. Consider the build of the counter for a moment; the harsh



Straight line is a thing to be avoided, as the room is no doubt already full of horizontal effects. One must concentrate then on a deviation, have a counter line in direct contrast to all its surround ings, as an example, the ideal design for the long bar is a front surface of gentle curves, fashioned to resemble a snake. Apart from looking attractive, this type of design has added advantages, one being that it enables more people to gather along it, and another that it gives an intimate feeling without being too familiar—in other words, if a patron wishes to dissociate from another, instead of leaving the establishment entirely, all he or she need do is to move quietly around one of the curves. A similar idea can be offered for the smaller type of bar ; if designed in the horse-shoe fashion, it gives gentility ofaccess to the counter, in that it will minimize congestion and can be approached at numerous angles. Most bartenders favour the horse-shoe or semi-circular bar, for it has many advantages over the straight counter-line type, mainly because there is invariably more working floor space behind,thereby making for easier and speedier service. During busy periods, too, an assistant can work in with the bartender without so much fear of collisions and accidents. In considering the construction of the bar, it will avoid a certain amount of confusion if the various suggestions are split into two categories. (I) The counter-top, counter-front, and the background fittings which come into full view of the patrons. (II) The unseen structure of the bar, behind and below the counter, designed for the working convenience of the bartender. Counter-top and Counter-front Taking the first group, and dealing with each factor in sequence, we therefore commence with the most important part of the bar, which is in reality a sort of no-man's-land,the dividing space between the customer and the bartender, named for want of a better term, the"Counter-top What memorable stories could be told under such a heading 1 Probably the utmost international and personal secrets of the world of to-day, and yester-years, have been whispered quietly or poured out over its polished surface! One can remember the


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